Electroforesis is the technique of separating charged components or molecules based on differences in the level of migration in an electric field. The speed of molecules moving in the electric field depends on the charge, shape and size. Electrofresis can be used to separate macromolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids). While agarosa is a gel used in biochemistry and biotechnology for electroforesis and special size chromatography which is a method of sorting large molecules by size and electric charge.

Provision of electric current can cause the flow of electrons and substances moving objects, then it will move from the negative electrode toward the positive electrode side. The speed of this movement varies, depending on the charge and molecular weight of DNA. The gel lattice serves as a separator. Objects with larger molecular weight will be slower to move.
The agarosa gel electroforesis method is based on the movement of charged molecules in a stable matrix buffer medium under the influence of an electric field. The media commonly used is agarosa gel or polyacrylamide. Agarosa gel electroforesis is used to separate DNA fragments larger than 100 bp and run horizontally, whereas polyacrylamide electroforesis can separate 1 bp and run vertically.

The benefits of gel electrophoresis include determining the size of DNA fragments from PCR products, separating DNA products from digestion products of different sizes, then sequencing, and also for purification or purification of DNA. Electroforesis can be applied to a variety of the following activities:
1. Comparing homologous genes from different species, knowing the sequence of sequences of various genomes.
2. DNA fingerprinting.
3. Detect genetic disorders.
4. Detect the location and amount of mRNA in certain cells or tissues.
5. Knowing the activity of genes during the development of various types of cell organisms or gene treatment experiments.
6. Study the evolution of the molecular level.
7. Knowing genetic variations that exist in nature.
8. Determine or identify the specific molecular weight of DNA, RNA, and protein.
9. Identifying genetic similarities and differences between individuals.
10. Knowing the number of DNA fragments cloned in a recombinant plasmid DNA.
11. Analyze DNA fragments amplified via PCR.